Washers come in various sizes and shapes. And each washer type serves a distinct purpose.
For example, lock washers are intended to keep bolts and nuts from becoming loose.
They come in a wide range of styles as well. Each is intended for a specific application.
Some of them resemble rings with lopsided ends. Others can look like a star with an outer ring of teeth.
Spring washers are used in many fasteners. However, the question of “What is a spring washer, and are they necessary?” may be on your mind.
We hope to provide all the information you need on spring washers in this article, including why they are used, the materials they are made of, and the standards they should meet.
Spring Washers Purpose
Washers are thin plates with concentric holes that distribute a threaded fastener’s load.
A spring washer is curved, and it can curve in various ways, but they all have a curved shape to avoid resting flush against a surface when no load is present.
They’re intended to absorb shock and provide a spring force by providing an axial load that counteracts vibrations.
Fasteners can become loose as a result of vibrations. If fasteners are driven into a vibrating machine or object, they might loosen to the point of coming out. This is avoided by using spring washers.
They provide an axial load that holds the fastener in place.
Therefore, they can significantly reduce fastener loosening over time.
Spring washers are essential in assembly applications because they absorb shock loads, eliminate rattle, keep assembly tension, and give controlled reactions to dynamic loads.
Types of Spring Washers
The washer’s deflection rate is determined by its materials and dimensions.
Taller, thicker spring washers can withstand more load and support higher tension in bolted applications more effectively.
Spring steel, stainless steel, aluminum, bronze, phosphor bronze alloy, and K-Monel are the most common materials used in spring washers.
The material is critical in preventing it from breaking down and losing its fastening strength.
Among the various types of spring washers are the following:
- Tooth locked
- Tooth elastic
- Curved disc
External-tooth lock washers have teeth on the ring’s outside, making them suitable with big fastener heads.
Lock washers with teeth on both sides of the ring are known as external-internal/combination lock washers.
They improve security when using large fastener heads. Internal-tooth lock washers have teeth on the ring’s inside and work well with small fastener heads.
Internal tooth elastic washers are typically used under screw heads with petite head sizes, while external ones are typically used under bolt heads and nuts.
A toothed elastic spring washer is smaller than a regular spring washer, and the fasteners are evenly reliable in preventing loosening.
Curved disc washers are ideal for applications that require light loads, flexibility, and repeated cycles through.
Wave washers are wavy metal washers that provide a compensating force or absorb shock when loaded.
And split washers resemble a ring with uneven ends. The ends bite into the fastener material to keep the ring from turning.
Why Do We Need Spring Washers?
Because of torque and vibration, the spring washers prevent nuts and bolts from turning and slipping.
Some washers perform this function by biting their ends into the nut and base material.
As a result, they’re frequently used in applications involving fastener slippage and vibration.
Transportation-related industries, like marine, aircraft, and automotive, frequently use spring washers.
They can also be found in household appliances like AC and washing machines.
We need them since they have excellent anti-loosening and seismic effects. Spring washers also have a low manufacturing cost, and the installation is straightforward.
How to Use Spring Washers
For a tight connection, we suggest the following steps:
- Put it beneath the threaded fastener, with the concave side facing the bearing or flange surface. The washer’s convex side should contact the bolt head and/or the nut. If you place them correctly, spring washers hold the nut in place.
- For a tight connection, make sure it is flush against the fastener.
- Tighten with the recommended torque for a secure hold and application.
- Examine it to make sure that it is in good working order. If the spring washers aren’t working properly, loosen the threaded fastener or nut.
Spring washers help to prevent loosening while also increasing the pre-tightening force.
When there are vibrations, pulses, or medium temperature fluctuations, you must use them.
To avoid the nuts from loosening, protect the parts, and reduce the vibrations, you must use a combination of flat and spring washers in large and vibration loads cases.
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